The brain is the main organ of the central nervous system. It consists of over 35 billion cells. Five brain regions interact with each other using neural connections:

  • Oblong. Responsible for protective reflexes (sneezing, coughing, vomiting), food (sucking, salivation, swallowing), and cardiovascular (regulation of the heart and blood vessels, as well as breathing and hearing).
  • Back section. It is responsible for facial expressions, chewing reflexes, balance, and muscle function.
  • The middle section is responsible for muscle tone and skin pigmentation.
  • The intermediate regulates metabolism, cardiovascular activity, and sleep.
  • The final (large) is the highest center of mental activity. Responsible for smell, hearing, sight, movement.

Disorders in the brain are recognized in medicine as one of the most dangerous diseases since they have rather serious consequences for the body. Each disease of the brain has characteristic features that depend on which specific pathological process is affecting the brain’s work. A disordered brain can provoke a hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke, after which the patient either becomes disabled or dies.

Symptoms of the disorders of the brain

disorders of the brain

The most common disorders in the brain include atherosclerosis, stroke, tumor, vascular aneurysm, and Alzheimer’s disease. Many people have a predisposition to developing diseases associated with the blood supply to the brain. Such data are a consequence of the unhealthy lifestyle of a modern person. The danger of disorders of the brain is that they are asymptomatic.

Common disorders of brain symptoms include:

  • Frequent headache that does not go away even after taking medication.
  • Memory impairment.
  • Constant fatigue.
  • Fainting.
  • Convulsions.
  • Fever. Body temperature can go up to 40 degrees.
  • Losing weight to the point of exhaustion.

Specific symptoms of atherosclerosis:

  • Noise in ears. It occurs when cholesterol plaque blocks blood flow in an artery by 60%.
  • Decreased erection. If a man under 50 years old has a decrease in erection, then their risk of dying from myocardial infarction is many times higher than that of the same person with normal erectile function.
  • Coldness in the limbs. Vessels become more rigid, and blood flows worse through them.

Specific symptoms of a stroke:

  • Numbness of the face, limbs.
  • Double vision.
  • Difficulty moving.

Stroke happens:

  • Ischemic. It is associated with blockage of arteries, cessation of blood flow to the brain, and tissue necrosis. The cause is a blockage of blood vessels leading to the brain due to atherosclerotic plaque. The second reason is a blood clot in the heart when it does not work correctly. As a result, the blood clot runs into the cerebral vessels, causing thrombosis.
  • Neurological. Associated with hemorrhage and hematoma formation inside the skull. It occurs due to high blood pressure, when at its peak, a small vessel inside the brain bursts, and a hematoma appears.

There are signs of a stroke that can be life-saving if recognized in time:

  • Smile. If a person cannot smile, and one of the corners of his mouth is lowered.
  • Traffic. A person cannot move two arms or legs at once.
  • Articulation. A person cannot clearly say something, not even his name.
  • Decision. To save a person, you should take them to the hospital and carry out the necessary examinations within 1-2 hours.

Specific symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease:

  • Avoiding contact with people.
  • Lost in space.
  • Decreased emotionality and interest in life.
  • Hallucinations.

Alzheimer’s is a disordered brain and a form of dementia that occurs in older people. It is most often found in patients who have crossed the threshold of 65 years. At the moment, it is incurable.

Specific symptoms of a brain tumor:

  • The headache does not go away within two weeks or a month.
  • The headache is accompanied by vomiting, hearing impairment, and coordination.
  • Motor perseverations (inability to stop acting).
  • Inattention, forgetfulness progresses.

Brain tumors are divided into benign, malignant, and metastases. In benign disease, the disease develops gradually, slowly, and gently over several years.

Types of brain tumors:

  • Intracerebral. The most common and aggressive form is glioblastoma. It is almost impossible to defeat it. The tumor grows through healthy tissues and does not lend itself to localization.
  • Extracerebral. They grow on the base or the surface of the skull.
  • Metastases are secondary brain tumors. The cells of underlying cancer enter the brain through the bloodstream and cause metastasis to grow.

Disorders of brain risk factors

Disorders of brain risk factors

Disorders in the brain can be provoked by various reasons related to lifestyle and existing health problems.

  • Smoking. Nicotine and other substances contained in tobacco smoke provoke atherosclerosis and vascular aneurysm at high speed.
  • Low physical activity. Physical education improves the plasticity of the brain, its ability to create new connections and transform itself. Accordingly, if a person does not perform even minimal loads, his brain does not make new neural connections and quickly destroys old ones.
  • Male gender. According to research, men are more likely to suffer from brain disorders as they lead a more unhealthy lifestyle.
  • High blood pressure. As a result of surges in blood pressure, protrusion of the vessel wall in a weak spot can occur.
  • Improper diet and obesity. With obesity, insulin insensitivity develops (cells lose sensitivity to the hormone, and the pancreas produces more of it).
  • Alcohol. The alcohol found in alcoholic beverages is absorbed into the bloodstream, enters the brain, and destroys its cortex.
  • High cholesterol. It affects the vessels, forming cholesterol plaques on their walls, which interfere with normal blood flow.
  • Stress. Recent studies have shown that stress makes it difficult for the brain to function due to the production of cortisol (the stress hormone).
  • Age. Many diseases begin to get younger and appear at an earlier age than decades ago. For example, cholesterol plaques begin to form in the brain’s blood vessels by 35, which can lead to atherosclerosis.
  • Genetics. If your close relatives under 50 have brain diseases, then you are in a high-risk zone.
  • Infections and inflammations. They affect the medulla, disrupting the immune system and the brain.

Diagnosis and treatment of disordered brain

Each disorder in the brain requires a specific treatment method. Therefore, if you notice the above symptoms in yourself, you need to make an appointment with a neurologist. Self-medication is life-threatening.

Diagnosis of brain diseases may look like this:

  • General and clinical blood test.
  • Analysis of urine.
  • Magnetic resonance therapy with intravenous contrast enhancement.
  • Computed tomography of the brain.
  • Ultrasound of the heart.
  • Electrocardiography.
  • Doppler ultrasound. (An instrumental research method using ultrasound allows you to clarify the nature and speed of blood flow in the arteries and veins.)
  • Angiography of the brain vessels (X-ray, which allows you to see the vessels of the brain).

Treatment of disorders of the brain can be medication, non-medication, and surgical.

You should adhere to simple but very important rules to reduce the risk of these diseases:

  • Take tests at least twice a year.
  • Lead a healthy lifestyle (physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes).
  • Follow a diet (eat healthy, low-fat foods).
  • Avoid stress.
  • Monitor your condition and do not ignore poor health.

Thanks to close cooperation with other doctors and professors, modern doctors quickly identify treatment options, so they can ultimately choose the best treatment option.