Diseases of the nervous system are common among all ages. Many people do not even realize that their condition is associated precisely with the pathology of the nervous system.
The nervous system is a very complex structure that is branched and permeates the entire body. Nervous system problems of at least one area immediately affect the health of a person as a whole.
- The central nervous system controls the main processes in our body and consists of the brain and spinal cord. These parts are the most important; therefore, they are well protected by bone and other tissues.
- The peripheral nervous system consists of all the nerves and nerve plexuses that branch out from the central nervous system. They are located throughout the body and are poorly protected from external influences.
Nerves function to carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to various parts of the body. PNS diseases are usually not as scary as, for example, a brain injury, but they are also very noticeable.
The nervous system is also divided into two depending on how it affects the body. The somatic system is responsible for muscle movement, and the autonomic system controls the functionality of the whole body as a whole.
Damage to the nervous system can be very diverse. Tics, headaches, paralysis, and even chronic fatigue syndrome are all connected precisely with the malfunctioning of the nervous system. Diseases can be congenital and acquired. Some of the pathologies are not cured, and it is possible only slightly to improve the patient’s quality of life. Others, with a timely visit to a neurologist, leave without a trace.
What are the nervous system problems? At the moment, hundreds of diseases of the nervous system, both central and peripheral, have been described. Depending on the cause that caused the problem, pathologies are divided into large groups.
Vascular diseases of the central nervous system
The main brain is the central nervous system, and it requires a lot of nutrients and oxygen. Therefore, any violation of the blood supply to the brain significantly affects its work. Such diseases are difficult and often lead to disability or death.
- Stroke is a sharp violation of the blood circulation in a part of the brain, due to which some nerve cells die off. Patients often fail to recover from a stroke fully.
- Atherosclerosis is the hardening of the walls of blood vessels, which gradually lose their elasticity. Cholesterol is deposited on their surface, and blood clots can form, interfering with blood flow.
- The aneurysm of the vessel wall becomes thinner, and a seal forms in this place. At any time, the aneurysm can rupture, and such extensive hemorrhage is usually fatal.
Infectious diseases of the central nervous system and nervous system problems. Various viruses, fungi, and bacteria can infect the brain or spinal cord. Although they are carefully protected, sometimes the unequal central system becomes infected, and after it is the peripheral one.
- Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain caused by an infection. If left untreated, it leads to organ damage and even death.
- Syphilis of the nervous system when infected with syphilis in 10% of cases, all parts of the nervous system are affected. Neurosyphilis without treatment leads to paralysis and disability; death is possible.
- Meningitis is an inflammation that affects various parts of the central nervous system, both the lining of the brain and the spinal cord. Meningitis can be caused by otitis media, trauma, viruses, and many other causes.
- Poliomyelitis is a viral disease that affects the entire nervous system. Most often, children suffer from them; often, the consequences remain for life.
Many pathologies and problems of the nervous system arise from genetic mutations, birth injuries, or problems during gestation. Often, diseases are manifested in infancy, developmental delay, weak reflexes, vision, and hearing. Some congenital pathologies do not make themselves felt for many years.
- Epilepsy is a chronic hereditary disease. It manifests itself in seizures, convulsions.
- Spinal muscular atrophy is a serious disorder in which the neurons of the spinal cord are affected. The patients’ muscles do not develop, the disease gradually leads to death.
- Canavan syndrome affects the brain. In this case, mental development is delayed, the ability to swallow is impaired. The syndrome does not respond to treatment.
- The chorea of
Huntington is characterized by characteristic tics, the gradual development of dementia. Even though the disease is genetic, it manifests itself only at an older age.
- Tourette’s syndrome is a disorder of the central nervous system in which involuntary movements and shouting of words occur. It manifests itself in childhood, usually subsides with age.
Peripheral disorders. The nervous system is often damaged due to weak security. Disorders can be caused by injury, surgery, infection, and toxins. Usually, these diseases are secondary and develop as a reaction to another disease. They are often associated with diabetes mellitus, diseases of the spine, alcoholism, and drug addiction.
- Neuralgia is an inflammation of the nerves resulting from which neurons die and tissues are destroyed.
- Neuritis is a violation of the integrity of the nerves; the structure or individual cells are destroyed.
- Polyneuritis multiple lesions of nerve endings; this often results in decreased sensitivity and reduced muscle strength.
- Radiculitis affects the roots of the spinal cord, causing pain.
Tumor pathologies. Malignant or benign formations can occur anywhere in the nervous system. Usually, the brain is affected, so the symptoms of the tumors are very bright.
For diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging is used to establish the exact size and location of the lesion.
Pathologies of the brain cause such diseases. They manifest themselves as a disorder of mental activity of varying intensity. These can be mild neurosis disorders, as well as severe psychosis when behavior is disturbed.
Usually, a weak, sensitive nervous system is susceptible to such diseases; this is manifested by various syndromes and disorders such as sleep disturbances, chronic fatigue syndrome, and discomfort in the body. Stress, lack of a regimen,constant nervous overstrain and exhaustion of the nervous system can provoke diseases. But the predisposition of the nervous system to such disorders is of no small importance.
How are diseases of the nervous system treated?
It is crucial to diagnose the disease correctly and establish what the cause is. Treatment will also depend on this.
For diagnosis, neurologists check the patient’s reflexes, prescribe an encephalogram to check the electrical processes in the brain. Additionally, the vessels are examined, checking how well the organs are supplied with blood.
Many pathologies are treated in a complex, with a combination of medicines, physiotherapy exercises, and physiotherapy. They are aimed at improving blood circulation, restoring lost functions, and reducing convulsive manifestations.
In the case of physical disorders (tumors, consequences after injuries, problems with the spine), surgery is sometimes required.
In the early stages of any nervous disease, the chances of restoring health are much higher. Even after strokes, rehabilitation begins almost immediately after the patient is admitted to the hospital, not to waste time.
Prevention of diseases of the nervous system. Prevention is needed not only to prevent the development of diseases of the nervous system. But also to preserve the results of treatment if the disease has already been. After many such diseases, a rollback occurs if you do not repeat the treatment courses.
The best prevention would be a timely visit to a doctor at the first sign of unusual symptoms. Do not postpone the visit; it is better to play it safe. It is also important to give up bad habits. Alcohol, smoking, drugs, regular sleep, and overwork stress are very detrimental to the nervous system.
Walking in the fresh air, sports, communicating with pleasant people, and a calm hobby will help maintain health.