The main causes of death in road accidents:
- injuries incompatible with life
- ambulance delay
- improperly provided first aid or inaction of eyewitnesses
In a driving school, everyone learns the rules of first aid in an accident. But for some reason, the majority remains either indifferent to the grief of others or does not know how to help. We call on all motorists not to remain indifferent and to familiarize themselves with the basic principles of first aid in case of an accident.
Car accidents most often occur away from the hospital; this is one of the main reasons that an ambulance cannot quickly reach the scene of an accident. And this prehospital period is in our hands. Therefore, you need to be able to effectively provide the patient with first aid.
Ensuring safety at the scene of an accident:
- Turn on the hazard warning lights and install the warning triangle.
- Assessment of the situation and confidence in their own safety, otherwise the number of victims may increase. A car with a gasoline engine burns out in 5-7 minutes; there is a possibility of an explosion. Therefore, it is necessary to turn off the engine, disconnect the battery (disconnect the wires from the battery by all possible means, pull out, cut, unscrew). If the car crashes into a pole with power lines, then the lines may be broken. You have to be careful.
The sequence of assistance in road accidents
- Call an ambulance.
- It is necessary to remove the patient from the car; this is a very crucial moment, as you can aggravate the severity of your injuries. The primary injuries in road traffic accidents are craniocerebral trauma and thoracic and lower limb injuries. Before removing the patient from the car, it is necessary to eliminate everything that may interfere with this. A person is pulled out by taking them by the axillary areas. As a result of a car accident, a person receives all kinds of injuries, bruises, and fractures. In no case should you jerk and stretch the limbs. And also, in no case bend the limbs and torso. If there is a suspicion of a spinal fracture, then the patient is placed on their stomach so that the fracture site remains in relative rest.
- After removing the patient, it is necessary to do everything as carefully as possible and assess their condition as quickly as possible. To begin with, you must remove tight clothing to ensure the flow of oxygen (remove the tie, take off the clothes, loosen the belt, etc.). Any careless movement or pressure can only increase the pain, be careful.
- We assess the condition of the victim. First, it is necessary to assess the state of vital functions; the nature of the first aid will depend on this:
- Breathing: the normal number of breaths per minute in an adult is 16-20, in children – 20-23. The patient may develop both rapid breathing (25-30) and rare (8-10), which may indicate the development of shock after a car accident;
- Pulse: it is better to feel it on the carotid (neck) or radial artery (where the watch is worn). In adults, it is normally 60-80, and in children, 80-90. Rapid pulse or rare (less than 60), as well as irregular, maybe a sign of shock;
- Pupil response: in healthy people, the pupil constricts in light and dilates in darkness. If the victim’s pupils are dilated and do not respond to light, this is a sign of a life-threatening condition;
- Skin: Usually pink in color and warm to the touch. With fainting and blood loss, skin becomes pale and cold; in the case of severe respiratory failure and blood loss – cyanotic. Rescuers should have 5-10 seconds for such an assessment. Because in this case, every minute counts.
Resuscitation of the patient with signs of clinical death
Each of the following signs is not the primary and reliable sign of clinical death. The diagnosis is made when all or most of the symptoms are present:
- lack of consciousness;
- lack of breathing;
- lack of pulsation on large vessels (carotid or femoral). It is better not to check the pulse on the radial artery, since with systolic pressure (upper) 50-60 mm Hg. they are already disappearing;
- dilated pupil;
- discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes (the appearance of pallor or, more often, called cyanosis).
Clinical death is the period between life and death, in which there are no clinical signs of life, but vital processes in the body are still ongoing; this is the period when a person can be saved. When providing resuscitation in the first 3 minutes, the probability of salvation is 75%. If the time is delayed up to 5 minutes, the probability of salvation is 25%. And if more than 10 minutes – then saving a person is already unrealistic since the human brain dies in a seemingly few minutes.
General principles of resuscitation:
- put the patient on a hard surface;
- a roller is placed under the neck to avoid tongue sinking;
- indirect heart massage with artificial respiration. The ratio of the number of chest compressions and artificial respiration – with the participation of one person, 15 compressions per 2 breaths, with two auxiliary breaths – 5 compressions per 1 breath. The total number of breaths is 12-16 per minute; chest compressions are 60-70 per minute. The air supply should last 1-2 seconds. The pressure on the chest should be 4-5 centimeters, in children 2-3 centimeters, and is applied with the base of the palm of one hand. The massage is continued until the heartbeat is fully restored.
Signs of successful resuscitation:
- the appearance of pulsation in the carotid artery;
- constriction of the pupils;
- the skin becomes pink;
- the appearance of spontaneous breathing.
Treatment after a car accident
The pain after a car accident should not be tolerated, even when it comes to long-standing injuries. The fact is that with the help of osteopathic techniques, significant improvement can be achieved even months and years after the tragic incident.
The most important advantage of osteopathy is its ability to deeply target each element of the musculoskeletal system (ligament, tendon, muscle, etc.). Thus, you can achieve the following:
- restoration of normal anatomical relationships between tissues;
- normalization of the activity of the smallest joints (intercostal joints, small joints of the spine, etc.);
- tonic effect on the located muscle fibers, allowing to return the lost harmony of movements;
- restoration of normal blood and lymph circulation in the affected area;
- creating conditions for the regeneration of nerve fibers;
- restoration of the natural elasticity of all tissues without exception in the affected region;
- elimination of pain syndrome;
- full rehabilitation after a car accident, characterized by the restoration of the functions of the affected department;
- improving the quality of life and preventing complications.