The nervous system is the essential component of the human body. It is responsible for the interconnection of all systems and organs in the body that controls them. Therefore, diseases in the nervous system are very dangerous, require a quick reaction and a professional approach, and if they are started, they can have irreversible consequences, including death.
The nervous system has two main components: the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (nerves that branch out from the brain and spinal cord). Thanks to the nervous system, self-regulation of all vital functions of the body are possible, as are the the perception, storage, and processing of the information received. Nerve impulses allow a person to feel and perceive the world around them in all its versatility. However, due to the complexity and fragility of the nervous system structure, injuries and diseases (including genetic ones) can disrupt its well-coordinated work.
There are five types of nervous system pathologies: hereditary, vascular, infectious, traumatic, and chronically progressive.
Diseases of the nervous system
- Acute pathologies are affecting the vessels of the brain. These include stroke, dyscirculatory encephalopathy, intracerebral hemorrhage, intracranial arterial aneurysm, etc.
- Consequences of craniocerebral trauma.
- Infectious diseases of the central nervous system: meningitis, encephalitis, brain abscess, poliomyelitis, and more.
- Multiple sclerosis.
- Age-related diseases of the nervous system- Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.
- Osteochondritis of the spine.
- Genetic and inherited diseases of the nervous system. This group usually includes such pathologies as Leigh’s syndrome, Tourette’s syndrome, spinal muscular atrophy, Huntington’s and Butten’s diseases, etc.
- Various disorders in the peripheral nervous system of neuralgia, neuritis, and others.
Hereditary diseases in the nervous system are usually divided into chromosomal and genomic. The most famous example of such a disease is Down syndrome. Such diseases are inherited. The standard signs of such diseases are infantility, dementia, disorders of the motor apparatus, and the endocrine system.
Most often, such diseases of the nervous system are manifested in children at an early age. Treatment of such ailments requires intensive care and inpatient treatment. Moreover, it is imperative to eat well and avoid stress, alcohol, and drugs to achieve the desired effect. If new alarming symptoms appear, be sure to see a doctor to prevent further consequences.
Neurovascular diseases are the most common and most dangerous. In this category are strokes and cerebrovascular insufficiency. If you do not seek medical help in time, such problems lead to irreversible changes in the brain and the patient’s death.
A person may have headaches (legs, arms, neck), sleep disturbances, and severe tremors. At the first such signs, immediately go for a diagnosis. In such cases, it is essential to detect the disease in time and begin treatment. Diagnosis of diseases in the nervous system in such cases is most often computed tomography, which gives the clearest picture of what is happening with the patient.
Infectious diseases in the nervous system usually affect only the brain. Most often, the culprits of such problems are fungi, parasites, and viruses. Therefore, the most common diagnoses of this kind are malaria, measles, and encephalitis.
The first symptoms of this disease may be a headache, nausea, vomiting, and high fever. If you or your loved ones have such symptoms for several days, contact a neurologist and undergo an examination. Diseases with the nervous system require prompt and professional intervention to save a person from the irreversible consequences of his illness.
The most common diagnosis in this category is a concussion. Injuries, bruises, or compression of the brain and spinal cord can lead a patient to begin to vomit and vomit and have a severe headache and high fever.
After diagnosis, the specialist will prescribe a treatment to restore the damaged areas and return the patient to normal life. But, as in other cases with injuries of the nervous system, it is better not to delay with such a thing.
Chronically progressive pathologies
These include sclerosis and myasthenia gravis. Chronic diseases with the nervous system are dangerous because their symptoms manifest themselves gradually, and it is not always possible to catch the symptoms at the very beginning. They occur if the nervous system is specifically arranged or if it is constantly affected by third-party infections.
Magnetic resonance tomography usually helps to identify such diseases of the nervous system. With the help of the data obtained with tomography, the doctor can prescribe effective treatment and seriously prolong the life of the nervous system. Therefore, at the slightest suspicion, do not hesitate to visit a doctor and diagnose. Timeliness is a decisive factor in such matters.
Treatment of diseases of the nervous system
In case of disturbances in the work of the central or peripheral nervous system, depending on individual indications and contraindications, the patient may be prescribed various procedures.
Treatment of these diseases includes the medical part, non-drug, and surgical treatment.
- Drug therapy is aimed at correcting the underlying disease, relieving pain, and restoring nerve function.
- Non-drug therapy includes the use of physiotherapeutic treatment methods, the selection of which depends on the specific pathology, the severity of the process, and concomitant pathology.
Surgical treatment methods are used:
- With a long-term persistent neurological defect and the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy.
- In acute conditions and in the presence of absolute indications for surgical treatment.
Treatment of diseases of the peripheral nervous system and therapy of diseases of the central nervous system must be carried out immediately.
Symptoms of diseases of the nervous system
Due to the variety of forms and types of neurological disorders, it can be difficult to identify common symptoms. However, a number of the most common signs may indicate the development of a disease of the nervous system. These include:
- Sleep disturbances, insomnia.
- Increased anxiety and irritability.
- Reduced performance, lethargy, drowsiness.
- Memory problems decreased alertness.
- The emergence of obsessive thoughts and phobias.
- Nervous tics, involuntary muscle contraction.
- Headaches, migraines, pains in the limbs.
- Frequent drops in blood pressure.
- Smell disorders, taste abnormalities, vision problems.