According to pathogenesis, cerebral edema is divided into vasogenic, cytotoxic, interstitial, and filtration. Depending on the etiological factor, there is tumor, traumatic, postoperative, toxic, inflammatory, ischemic, and hypertensive cerebral edema.
The clinical manifestations of cerebral edema and traumatic brain are the same regardless of its pathogenetic type.
They consist of a combination of three groups of symptoms:
- due to the syndrome of intracranial hypertension
- stem symptoms.
The syndrome of intracranial hypertension occurs due to an increase in fluid in the closed space of the cranial cavity. It is manifested by a bursting headache, nausea, vomiting at the height of pain, and a decrease in the level of consciousness. With long-term intracranial hypertension on the roentgenograms of the skull, an increase in digital impressions, osteoporosis of the dorsum of the sella turcica can be noted, in the study of the fundus, swelling of the optic nipples.
Finding edema in certain areas of the brain leads to disruption of their work and, accordingly, the loss of the functions they represent, focal symptoms.
Attachment of stem symptoms in the clinic is manifested by impaired breathing, blood circulation, inhibition of the reaction of the pupils, and is life-threatening.
Cerebral edema treatment
One of the main tasks in treating a patient with the traumatic brain in the acute period is to provide them with a normal level of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) since it determines the sufficiency of blood supply and the supply of nutrients to the neuron.
The formula determines CPD:
Cerebral edema leads to intracranial hypertension, i.e., an increase in ICP and, accordingly, a decrease in CPP.
Treatment of edema-swelling of the brain includes:
- maintenance of oxygenation (pO2> 70 mm Hg), if necessary, transfer to mechanical ventilation
- elimination of motor excitement and seizures
- prevention and elimination of pain and nociceptive reactions
- elimination of the causes that disturb the venous outflow from the cranial cavity
- maintaining normal body temperature
- moderate hyperventilation
- the appointment of diuretics.
If conservative treatment is ineffective, doctors perform a decompression craniotomy operation by removing a bone flap to reduce the increased ICP due to cerebral edema.
What is intracranial pressure?
Intracranial pressure is a common disorder and an extremely dangerous condition, common among adults and children. Interestingly, increased intracranial pressure is more common in women than in the male sex.
In the absence of timely medical care, this pathological condition can provoke serious consequences in the patient, up to disability.
Increased intracranial pressure is a disorder familiar to many. The feeling of an acute headache, at times, can be knockdown. Do not ignore the pain because our body can warn us about the danger to our health, and, perhaps, behind the headache lies a more severe disease on which our life can depend.
What are the causes of increased intracranial pressure?
Sometimes, taking an anesthetic, the pain goes away imperceptibly, and the general condition improves. However, it may be worth looking for the problem much deeper; if the increased intracranial pressure does not give you rest, then you should look for the causes of the pain. For example, it can be meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the spinal cord and brain) or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain caused by a virus). The cause can be traumatic brain, inflammation of the membranes, rupture of part of the cerebral artery.
The factor provoking an increase in intracranial pressure is the impaired outflow of cerebrospinal fluid from the brain.
Usually, it occupies about 10% of its total volume, performing various functions, which include:
- protecting the brain from trauma if there is an impact or fall, the cerebrospinal fluid will soften the contact of cranial bones and delicate tissues
- also, the movement of cerebrospinal fluid removes the toxins and decay products from the brain
- finally, it ensures that the correct electrolyte-water balance is maintained.
The most common causes of intracranial pressure include metabolic disorders that provoke an insufficient flow of fluid into the bloodstream, as well as spasm of the vessels through which the cerebrospinal fluid moves. In addition, oxygen starvation of the brain, excess fluid in the body, obesity, severe intoxication, and inflammation of the brain can also provoke intracranial pressure. The presence of benign or malignant tumors in the body can also lead to a violation of the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid.
If the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid from the intracranial space is disturbed for any reason, it provokes the accumulation of its excess volume and an increase in pressure. At the same time, in both a child and an adult patient, an increase in intracranial pressure of more than 30 mm Hg can lead to irreversible changes developing in the tissues and, consequently, the onset of a disability and even death.
Symptoms of increased intracranial pressure of the brain
Unlike patients suffering from hypertension and hypotension, people with increased pressure cannot measure it independently. It is possible to diagnose this violation only by contacting a doctor.
The following symptoms can suspect an increase in pressure inside the skull:
- headaches, which, paradoxically, intensify during a night’s rest. They get stronger when trying to turn your head and sneezing and coughing
- swelling of the face and eyelids
- tinnitus and hearing impairment
- visual disturbances from edema of the optic nerve, at first double vision and disturbances in reaction and peripheral vision, and then a pronounced deterioration in central vision
- nausea and vomiting
- lowering blood pressure, light-headedness, fainting
- paroxysmal sweating
- weakness, fatigue, decreased performance
- unhealthy appearance, in particular, pronounced bruising under the eyes
- soreness in the neck.
Symptoms of increased intracranial brain pressure in children. What to do if you notice pain in a child or a baby, possibly increased pressure?
Let’s look at what symptoms children have in this case:
- Weak sleep
- Frequent restlessness, the child is constantly crying
- Poor appetite, impaired appetite, frequent regurgitation of food
- Legs, arms, and chin tremble
- The fontanelle swells
- Very rapid enlargement of the circumferential part of the head.
If you notice such symptoms in an infant, then immediately contact a specialist for examination to prescribe quality treatment. Treatment for increased intracranial pressure.
You can use both components of medication (tablets, injections, solutions) and folk remedies with this disorder. These include, for example: boil decoctions of chopped mulberry twigs, or mix hawthorn tincture with motherwort and valerian, adding mint and a little clove to 500 ml of water. However, before using any means, be sure to consult with your doctor.
Remember that the correct treatment starts with a good examination and an accurate diagnosis. Therefore, do not skimp on your health. Go through a full examination, thanks to which, it will be much easier for the doctor to prescribe the best and high-quality treatment for you, and you will not have to pay for unnecessary medications that can also harm you.
Intracranial pressure treatment
If ICP is a secondary disorder and is one of the complications of any disease, it is necessary to treat the primary pathology. In other cases, doctors perform symptomatic intracranial pressure treatment.
Distinguish between the conservative and surgical treatment of this pathology:
- Conservative treatment is given according to the scheme prescribed by the attending physician of the drugs they prescribed, increasing the outflow of fluid. These can be either conventional diuretics or steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Physiotherapy and massage also work well for the treatment of increased intracranial pressure.
Doctors perform surgical interventions in the most severe cases of ICP. Usually, this is a shunting, the installation of a special shunt, through which excess fluid leaves the brain, rushing into the abdominal cavity.
What causes intracranial pressure?Intracranial pressure can cause an increase in pressure within the brain itself. And an increase in pressure, in turn, can be caused by education (for example, a tumor), bleeding into the brain.
How can you reduce intracranial pressure?Doctors use different methods to reduce intracranial pressure. Fluid is drained through a shunt through a small opening in the skull or through the spinal cord to relieve pressure. Medication mannitol and hypertonic solution can also lower blood pressure
What happens when intracranial pressure increases?Suppose a person has a sudden increase in pressure inside the skull; there is an urgent need to consult a doctor. If it is left untreated, increased intracranial pressure (ICP) can lead to brain injury, seizures, coma, stroke, or death. With early treatment, people with high ICP can make a full recovery.